Transitive & Intransitive
Verbs are classified into two types, transitive and intransitive.
The tansitive verb is used with an object and the intransitive verb is used without an object.
For instance, tabemasu is a transitive verb, and is used with an object.
Watashi wa ringo o tabemashita.
I ate an apple.
Nakimasu is an intransitive verb and there is no object in a sentence.
Watashi wa nakimashita.
Japanese transitive and intransitive verbs are written using the same Kanji but are read differently in many cases.
We use "vt." to indicate transitive verb and "vi." for intransitive verb.
Watashi wa mado o akemashita.
I opened a window.
Mado wa akimashita.
A window opened.
Katoo-san wa kamera o kowashimashita.
Mr. Katoo broke the camera.
Kamera wa kowaremashita.
The camera broke.
Depaato wa ashita tsukue o todokemasu.
The department store will deliver the desk tomorrow.
Tsukue wa ashita todokimasu.
The desk will be delivered tomorrow.
Watashi wa kaigi no jikan o kimemashita.
I fixed the schedule of meeting.
Kaigi no jikan wa kimarimashita.
The schedule of meeting has been fixed.
Watashi wa yotei o kaemashita.
I changed my schedule.
Yotei wa kawarimashita.
The schedule changed.
Katoo-san wa kuruma o naoshimashita.
Mr. Katoo repaired car.
Kuruma wa naorimashita.
The car was repaired.
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